Modern C++ isn’t memory safe, either

Recent language updates fix some problems, introduce others

A recurring theme in just about all discussions revolving around the comparison of programming languages – apart from using the wrong tool for the job, adamantly pushing a language objectively/demonstrably inferior at x out of blind loyalty, bashing on languages you’ve never used or studied simply because you’ve seen firsthand how well received such comments can be, and worse – is acting off of stale information that no longer necessarily holds true.

At NeoSmart Technologies, we don’t just have one dog in the race; our software is developed in a multitude of languages, ranging from C/C++ to both desktop/web C#/ASP.NET, rust, [JS|TypeScript]/HTML/[LESS|CSS], (ba)sh scripting, and more.1 So it’s always interesting to observe these discussions (sometimes up close and personal and sometimes disinterestedly from afar) and observe what arguments remain standing once the dust has settled and the troops have gone home for the day.

As mentioned, one of the most important concepts to keep in mind when discussing programming languages is the tool ↔ job relationship. An astute reader will have observed that while the list of languages we code in may be somewhat diverse, it actually contains little overlap in practice: no one in their right mind would use a shell script to create a complicated GUI for an enterprise product (or would they?) and JavaScript isn’t quite the right tool for the job when you’re writing a kernel driver.2 Low-level, low-dependency applications written in C or C++ probably shouldn’t be dumped in favor of some .NET Core code anytime soon (although work has progressed on native, dependency-free AOT compilation of .NET Core code in recent weeks) – but what about rust? While C# may have never made an official goal out of replacing legacy C and C++ code, rust certainly has.

No amount of arguing can dance around the fact that rust (the language) exposes significantly more information to help rustc (the compiler) protect developers from hanging themselves with their own rope, but there are arguments to be made for the benefits of recent improvements and advancements in the C++ world that have made manual allocation of pointers a significantly-less-necessary evil combined with toolchain improvements that have improved static analysis and provided immense relief from a certain class of bugs and vulnerabilities.

Many rust champions that haven’t come from the C++ world are unaware of these improvements, and it’s not too improbable that you’ll see in a “C++ vs rust” debate a rustacean retorting with something along the lines of “.. and I’ll never have to use pointers ever again!” (or something else equal parts overly-dramatized and untrue) to which a C++ developer that has embraced the outpouring of new features in the language and standard library since C++111 and beyond will pipe up with the surprising news that “it’s actually possible to write an entire project in C++11 without having to deal with pointers even once,” which is certainly true enough, almost inevitably followed up with “and if you restrict yourself to a subset of C++ (the language), you don’t even have to worry about memory allocation or lifespans because it’s all done automatically via references and smart pointers;” at which point they’ve unfortunately demonstrated their lack of familiarity with lifetimes and opened themselves up to the same problems pointers would have similarly caused oh so long ago.

While it’s true that shared_ptr and co (perhaps primarily unique_ptr<T> which brings almost rust-like qualities to the language, unfortunately hidden behind (officially) heap-allocated memory and a pointer indirection) have made C++ a significantly faster, safer, and more productive language to write code in, it’s most unfortunately untrue that C++11 onwards has made it easier to avoid lifetime issues, due to a problem seen way too often in many large C++11 (or C++14 and C++17) codebases both in the private/enterprise and the public/OSS sectors, that can perhaps best be summed up by the old adage, what the right hand giveth, the left hand taketh away.

The problem is that while C++11 brought to the world the glories of shared_ptr, unique_ptr, and a mountain of other benefits, they also introduced a horribly misunderstood, impossible to properly vet feature in the form of capture-by-reference for variables used in lambdas, causing a raft of lifetime issues to surface. At heart, reference-captured variables used in lambdas are no different than functions returning references to locally-scoped variables: an obvious no-no if there ever was one. But the problem with lambdas is that they significantly obfuscate the issue, and make it all too easy to pass in one or more variables by reference (especially with the evil, never-should-have-been adopted, should-be-a-hard-warning-by-default capture all by reference [&] lambda operator.

Fundamentally, the following code snippet demonstrating the usage of a function-local variable passed by reference to a lambda is no different than a naive return of a locally-scoped variable by reference in “legacy” C++:

auto helper1(std::string str) -> auto {
	std::string capital;
	std::transform(str.begin(), str.end(),
		std::back_inserter(capital), ::toupper);
	return [&capital] () {
		std::cout << "HELLO, " << capital << "!" << std::endl;

int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {
	auto callback1 = helper1("Mahmoud");

It’s easy to argue – going into the very-much contrived code sample above already knowing what to look for and all – that the invalid (or, more technically, the use-after-free) memory access above is obvious and is a mistake that no one could ever fall for twice. But you’d be surprised. Previous “idiomatic” usages of pass-by-reference in C++ (i.e. as used by your average programmer and not by either of expert practitioners or beginners) typically took the form of one of the two: pass-by-reference arguments to a function, and return-by-reference from a function, usages of the former probably outnumbering the latter by at least 500:1.

I’m not going to argue that it’s impossible to end up in a situation where an argument passed in to a function by reference can wind up pointing to invalid memory, but by-and-large, it’s a fairly safe and very ordinary occurrence. A variable is declared before the function is called, and a reference to it is passed to the function so that it’s existing value may be manipulated by the called function, most often used as a workaround for the fact that C++ (the language) had no tuples and functions could only return a single result:

bool foo(int input, int &output) {
	bool ok = true;
	//do something here that might fail
	if (ok) {
		output = result;
	return ok;

In the code above, the reference is used as a more-or-less equivalent replacement for C’s pointers, preventing the null dereferencing that might have occurred if int &output were int *output instead – just like ref in C# would be used to accomplish the same (before the language grew up and learned to use tuples).

This usage of pass-by-reference for variables is by far the most common in C++ development that most developers you interview will have a hard time telling you when to use return-by-reference, or if it’s even legal in the language (let alone both legal and safe) to write something like this:

class Singleton {
	int x;

	int &retrieve_reference() {
		return x;

	void print() {
		std::cout << "x is " << x << std::endl;

Singleton singleton;

int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {
	int &x = singleton.retrieve_reference();
	x = 42;



That function declaration with a return-by-reference is used when you need it; you never find developers returning by reference without at least thinking they had a good reason to do so. And the only time you’d need to use it would be when the caller needs to be able to modify the state of an existing variable, i.e. when that variable is, at least at the time that the function returns, still alive. Think about it: ignoring the memory issues in the code fragment below, what would be the point of code that essentially boils down to this:

int &foo() {
	int x = 7;
	return x;

But with C++11 onwards, it’s become only too easy to write code that does just that, only without it being so obvious. The insidious “capture-all-by-reference” [&] makes it all too likely that a (lazy) developer will use it as a shortcut being fully cognizant of what variables are being referenced and when they are expected to go out of scope, only for a future commit (by the same developer, no less!) to introduce access to a different variable (without any complaints from the compiler) into the lambda that will result in a use-after-free vulnerability.

Since variables captured by value in a lambda are read-only by default (unless mutable is used) and since lambdas are often used as a way of reducing code repetition and eliminating some copy-and-paste errors by modifying variables declared in an outer scope from within a lambda (only possible when variables are captured by reference), lambdas are a natural breeding ground for these use-after-free errors. This problem is greatly exacerbated by the abundance of literature – both online and offline – that claims lambdas “extend” the lifetime of variables “captured” by value (when, in reality, a copy of that variable with its value captured having a lifetime equal to that of the lambda itself is created).

Suffice to say, if you restrict yourself to a subset of C/C++ that avoids pointers and references and shares state between scopes exclusively via reference-counted smart pointers or by passing-by-value, these gotchas don’t apply. But while references were a significant improvement over pointers, it’s either intellectual dishonesty or sheer naïveté to think that references magically eliminate memory errors. It’s important to understand that memory access violations come in many different shapes and colors, and replacing C pointers with C++ references only solves one class of them (null dereference).

But I think we can all agree that virtually all the reasons to use C++17 disappear if you are forced to use reference-counted, heap-allocated variables for virtually all of your code. It might not be as slow as *insert name of your least-favorite interpreted language here*, but it will certainly be far more verbose!

— Addendum: Bonus Content —

If you’re still not sure, here’s an example of code using std::shared_ptr that is still vulnerable to this issue, only not as obviously so:

#include <set>
#include <functional>
#include <iostream>
#include <memory>

class int_wrapper;
std::set<int_wrapper*> destroyed;

class int_wrapper {
	int _value;

	int_wrapper(int x) {
		_value = x;

	~int_wrapper() {

	int get_value() {
		if (::destroyed.find(this) != ::destroyed.end())
			std::cerr << "mayday! get_value() called against"
				" destroyed object!" << std::endl;
		return _value;

std::function<void ()> bar() {
	std::shared_ptr<int_wrapper> ptr;

	auto helper = [&](int x) {
		for (int i = 1; i <= x; ++i) {
			if (i == (rand() % x) || i == (rand() % 3)) {
				std::cout << "Picked a number!" << std::endl;
				ptr = std::make_shared<int_wrapper>(i);

		int to_print = ptr->get_value();
		std::cout << "The pointless convolution returned "
			<< to_print << std::endl;

	bool condition1 = (rand() % 20) == 2;
	if (condition1) {
		return std::bind(helper, 12);
	else {
		return std::bind(helper, 5);

int main(int argc, const char *argv[]) {

	auto foo = bar();

The problem above is that while shared_ptr & co. are officially “reference” counting methods of automatic memory allocation and deallocation, what remains unsaid is that what shared_ptr considers to be a reference is not the same “reference” that C++ (the language) uses (surprising – but only until you think about it). A shared_ptr “reference” is actually a distinct/separate C++ variable, while a C++ reference to a shared_ptr instance has no counterpart.

  1. Gasp, yes, even PHP! 

  2. But don’t let the fanboys hear you say that, they might not take too kindly that notion! 

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  • 11 thoughts on “Modern C++ isn’t memory safe, either

    1. So the point of the article is:
      It’s still possible for people who don’t understand the basics of the language to misuse it. It should be obvious that when you capture by reference, the capture’s only valid as long as the reference is. Nothing has changed there, and the default, just like everywhere else in the language, is capture by value.

      I like Rust, it has a lot to like about it, but this whole article is basically shouting: C++ is not Rust. The overall comparison is unfair. You’re comparing the core unique feature of Rust. I could do something similar and make Rust look vastly inferior by listing one of the many features it doesn’t do: compile time code execution, non-type template parameters, deduced function return types (though with impl return types that becomes less of an issue), user defined literals.

      As for using unique_ptr and shared_ptr everywhere, and not using references and pointers, that’s just bad advice. These are tools for managing lifetime, not general argument passing.

      If you’re looking to transfer ownership, passing by value is the first thing you’d want to do (preferably move).

      Yes, C++ easily allows you to shoot yourself in the foot, all examples are extremely contrived, and seem purposefully crafted to show you can shoot yourself, but not something people actually tend to do a lot. I actually found especially with lambdas that the rather alien syntax is keeping people who don’t know them well away.

    2. I love it when people bash on C++ because it doesn’t give you floaties and have mommy watching to make sure you never go near the deep end.

    3. And this kind of hubris, my friends, is why we can’t have nice things in computing. [re: floaties and deep ends]

    4. There has to be a better way to resolve these Programming Language situations, in commits, push pull, and repository format. Laying it down. Step by step instructions system… like 1,2,3,…!!! Memory safe and unsafe maybe needs to be taken more information seriously and answered with cause of actions and proposed fixed use application showing results.

    5. The way I see it, there exists a palette of concepts (loops, branches, storage, *pointers*, etc.) and then there are languages that provide a set of semantics in which to implement those concepts. Any given language: ok, this is what you type to create a loop, this is what you type to create a branch, this is what you type to handle storage. The language doesn’t change those concepts. The point being, given the pallette of concepts and constucts, I just don’t see what purpose it serves to get “religious” about language X or language Y. People seem to think there is some magic language that is going to make up for a lack of understanding those concepts. It seems like people are looking for some magic language that makes it so that you don’t have to be conversant with the concepts or so that you can be lazy about it.

      The best “language” is to actually understand concepts and being able to apply them, then the specific language is mostly irrelavent.

    6. Rust isn’t memory safe either. Delimiting “unsafe” blocks doesn’t magically prevent their contents breaking memory safety.

      Rust seems to be more about making exaggerated claims and false promises than any actual “safety”.

    7. “If you’re still not sure, here’s an example of code using std::shared_ptr that is still vulnerable”…

      1) run/got seg-fault;
      2) Declare ptr as static on line 32;
      3) Laugh;

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